Books, films, articles, reports related to the Balkan wars
Branimir Anzulovic. Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. New York and London: New York University Press, 1999. xiv + 233 pp
A valuable dissection of the mythical underpinnings of Serbia ultra-nationalism. These concepts and images have been skillfully manipulated by the Milosevic regime during the last decade to persue wars of genocide and expultion against Serbia's numerous ethnic neighbors. Anzulovic, a native of Croatia, focuses on the role of ideology in guiding genocidal actions: “the primary force leading to genocide is not the pathology of the individual organizing and committing the genocide, but the pathology of the ideas guiding them.” (p. 4) He believes that the roots of Serbian genocidal behavior–and he accepts as given that Serbian actions have been genocidal–can be found in the mythology that arose to explain the battle of Kosovo of 1389. Although he distances himself rhetorically from accusations of reductionism (“It would be an error to assume that the memory of the Serbian medieval empire necessarily led to the latest war for a Greater Serbia …” [p. 2]), in the body of his book Anzulovic does in fact interpret virtually every event in Serbia's history following 1389 through the prism of the Kosovo myths. Most outsiders blame the Serbs for the atrocities, but the Serbs themselves believe that they are the ones that are being just; it’s the rest of the world that is wrong. Anzulovic’s book explains why the Serbs, through a potent recollection of their own history, would bring death and destruction to the rest of the area and international condemnation and economic ruin on themselves.
Tom Gallagher (b. 1954), The Balkans after the Cold War : from tyranny to tragedy, London : Routledge, 2003.
Contents: Challenges and crises after the communist era — The international dimension of the escalating crisis in Yugoslavia — The war in Croatia and the countdown to the Bosnian conflict, July 1991-May 1992 —Genocide and dispossession in Bosnia and the international response — The Bosnian endgame : survival amidst tragedy and international rancour — International intervention in the Balkans 1995-7 : limited goals and capabilities — Authoritarian rule in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: Yugoslavia–History–1980-1992. Yugoslav War, 1991-1995. Former Yugoslav republics–History.
Clea Koff, The bone woman : a forensic anthropologist's search for truth in the mass graves of Rwanda, Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo (New York : Random House), 2004.
David Bruce MacDonald, Balkan holocausts? : Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia, New York : Manchester University Press ; New York : Distributed exclusively in the USA by Palgrave, 2002.
Stjepan Mestrovic, editor, Genocide after Emotion The Postemotional Balkan War Routledge, 1996 240pp
Takis Michas, Unholy Alliance: Greece and Milosevic's Serbia in the Nineties, Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.), 192 p
This is an account of the war in the Balkans during the 1990s. As the only member of NATO and the European Union to support Slobodan Milosevic's regime in the conflict following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Greece broke ranks with its western allies, frustrating their efforts to impose sanctions against Serbia. The work looks at Greek-Serbian relations and tackles the difficult question of how the Greek people could ignore Serbian aggression and war crimes. Journalistic accounts are combined with anecdotes and personal interviews to show a pattern of Greek support for Milosevic and Radovan Karadzic that implicates Greek politicians from all parties, as well as the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greek media, and ultimately the Greek people themselves. The evidence and conclusions presented aim to question the opinion that a new liberal order replaced the ideological standoff of the Cold War, but it will not surprise those who suspected that older allegiances have now claimed loyaties of many of the world's peoples.“what seemed incomprehensible during the Bosnia and Kosovo wars was not so much that Greece sided with Serbia, but that it sided with Serbia's darkest side” (p. 4).These waves have not reached Greece, though, a country that was rejoicing after the “fall” of Srebrenica in July 1995 at the hands of Bosnian Serbs and their allies, Greek paramilitaries. The latter in fact raised the Greek flag in Srebrenica after its capture: for those who may try to contest this fact, a photo is provided (p. 22),Another revealing part of the Dutch report on Srebrenica is the reference to the support of the Bosnian Serb army by the Greek (alongside Israeli and Ukrainian) secret services which provided them with arms and ammunition. Michas’ book makes this look even more credible when it reveals that NATO military secrets on the August 1995 air strikes were passed on to Mladic on direct orders of then socialist Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou: the author's source is none other than Papandreou's personal intermediary with Karadzic and Milosevic, the -then and now-President of Greek-Serbian Friendship Association, who was carrying out the mission (pp. 38-39)TAKIS MICHAS is a Greek journalist and author of books and articles on Greek political history and modern philosophy. .
Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide New York : Basic Books, 2002, 384 pp.
Chapters 9, 11 and 12 of this book discuss war crimes and genocide in the former Yugoslavia (p. 247-328, 391-474)
James Ron, Frontiers and ghettos : state violence in Serbia and Israel, Berkeley : University of California Press, 2003.
Ron James is the author of Weapons transfers and violations of the laws of war in Turkey (New York : Human Right[s] Watch, 1995) . Contents: Institutional settings and violence — Bosnian frontier formation —Ethnic cleansing on the Bosnian frontier —Ethnic harassment in the Serbian core — Kosovo's changing institutional fate — Creating the Palestinian ghetto — Policing the ghetto — Alternatives to policing. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: State-sponsored terrorism–Yugoslavia–Serbia. State-sponsored terrorism–Israel. Serbia–Ethnic relations–Political aspects. Serbia–Politics and government–1992- Israel–Ethnic relations–Political aspects. Israel–Politics and government–1993-
James J. Sadkovich, The U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995, (Praeger Publishers. Westport, Conn. 1998), 296 pp.
“Sadkovich has compiled a truly masterly assessment of the US media's biased and generally inept, if perhaps well-intentioned, efforts to make sense of [the unraveling of Yugoslavia]. What emerges is a searing indictment of the manner in which American media — press, radio, and television — go about reporting information, layered with bias, stereotypes, agenda-setting, and judgmental ethnic evaluations of morality. A useful bibliography and chapter notes provide a valuable mine of information. Recommended for undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty.”
Michael P. Scharf, William A. Schabas, Slobodan Milosevic on trial : a companion (New York : Continuum, 2002) 178 p. ;
Raju G.C. Thomas, Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention, Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, 2003.
Contents: Sovereignty, self-determination, and secession : principles and practice / Raju G.C. Thomas — The future of nationalism / Michael Mandelbaum — Transnational causes of genocide, or, How the West exacerbates ethnic conflict / Alan J. Kuperman — Religion and war : fault lines in the Balkan enigma / P.H. Liotta — Economic aspects of Yugoslavia's disintegration / Milica Z. Bookman — International policy in southeastern Europe : a diagnosis / Gordon N. Bardos — Wars, humanitarian intervention, and international law : perceptions and reality / Raju G.C. Thomas — The use of refugees as political and military weapons in the Kosovo conflict / Kelly M. Greenhill — Propaganda system one : from Diem and Arbenz to Milosevic / Edward S. Herman — Biased justice : “humanrightism” and the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia / Robert M. Hayden — Illegal wars, collateral damage, and international criminal law / Michael Mandel — Intervention in ethnic civil wars and exit strategies : lessons from South Asia / Maya Chadda — Reflections on the Yugoslav wars : a peacekeeper's perspective / Satish Nambiar.
Ed Vulliamy “Middle Managers of Genocide” (Bosnian Genocide)
Marla Stone “Bosnia’s Untenable Peace”
Srebrenica Report 1999 (PDF file): “Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to General Assembly resolution 53/35: the fall of Srebrenica” A/54/549 presented 15 November 1999. Written in accordance with resolution 53/35 approved by the General Assembly on November 30, 1998, Secretary-General Kofi Annan‘s report says the UN Security Council should have approved “more decisive and forceful action to prevent the unfolding horror” in Bosnia and that ”safe areas” should never be established again without credible means of defence.” The report refers to an “attempted genocide” in Bosnia. Since the conviction of perpetrators for genocide at the Hague in August 2001, the Srebreniica crime as become widely recongized as genocide.“Srebrenica, a ‘safe’ area – reconstruction, background, consequences and analyses of the fall of a safe area” April 15, 2002. Read the Summary, Conclusion and Epilogue from the Report that caused the the entire Dutch Government to resign. Also read Four UN reports on Srebrenica, Rwanda and Genocide Prevention.
Burning the Evidence in Kosovo: 25 Jan 2001 During the war in Kosovo in 1999, war-crimes investigators suspected that Serbian forces were hiding evidence of atrocities by removing bodies of murdered Albanians from graves and execution sites. This is the story of a secret and grisly operation by Serbian security forces to destroy evidence of possible war crimes in an industrial furnace in northern Kosovo. http://www.americanradioworks.org
This year is the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia (July 11-16, 1995). See www.srebrenica2005.com
Conference: “Genocide Against Bosniaks in the U.N. Safe Area Srebrenica, July 1995” Location: Sarajevo and Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina Date: July 10-14, 2005 Sponsor: Institut za istraživanje zlocina protiv covjecnosti i medjunarodnog prava Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Institute for Research of Crimes against Humanity and International Law of Sarajevo University) est. 1992. http://www.inzl.unsa.ba
May 27 – Five years ago on May 27, 1999, Yugoslav President Slobadan Milosevic was indicted by International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at the Hague. In the midst Serbia's enormous mass expulsion of Albanians Kosovars from Kosovo and the NATO Bombing campaign, the ICTY announced war crimes indictments against President Milosevic and four other top Serb officials. Milosevic was the first Head of State indicted by an international court.
July 11-16 Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia (July 11-16, 1995). Established as a “safe area”in the Spring of 1993, Srebrenica became the site of Europe's worst massacre since World War Two in which some 8,000 Muslim men and boys were killed. in July 2003 the Bosnian Serb government announced Tuesday it would donate one million euros to the foundation maintaining the Potocari/Srebrenica Memorial and Cemetery for the victims of the Srebrenica massacre. The cemetery opened on September 20, 2003 with the burial of 107 victims alongside 882 already laid to rest at the cemetery.
Behind Enemy Lines 106 min. John Moore “ Set in war-torn Bosnia, the film portrays a mass grave where victims of genocide lie decomposing in the mud. Violence ranges from deafening mine and tank explosions to point-blank shootings and spattering blood. A near-catatonic child sits amid the destruction in one scene. Owen Wilson plays Lt. Burnett, a cocky but amiable naval aviator flying reconnaissance missions over Bosnia. He and his pilot photograph something sinister and are shot down. Stranded, Burnett is hunted and marked for death by Serbs in the middle of a supposed cease-fire. Back on the aircraft carrier, the admiral (Gene Hackman) who once thought Burnett was a hotdog tries to mount a mission to save him, but NATO wants the United States to back off. The film derides NATO's good intentions but does better with the metaphor of a lone American caught between factions in a foreign war.”.Jane Horwitz Wash. Post, 30 Nov 2001